Dr. Ray L. Winstead
Professor of Biology, Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Animal Behavior
Lecture Outline and Basic Definitions

Introduction to Behavior

Innate Behavior
A. Taxis
B. Kinesis
C. Reflex
D. Instinct
E. Releasers of Instinctive Behavior
Learned Behavior and Reasoning
A. Habituation
B. Imprinting
C. Conditioning
D. Trial and Error Learning
E. Reasoning
Social Behavior in Insect Societies: The Honeybee

Social Behavior in Vertebrates
A. Agonistic Behavior
B. Reproductive Behavior
C. Parental Behavior
D. Cooperative Behavior
Biological Clocks

Introductory Terms
Animal Behavior in the broadest sense is the overt action an animal takes to adjust to surrounding environmental circumstances so as to insure its survival or simply what animals do and how they do it.


The Five Components of Animal Behavior

Taxes - A Taxis is a movement of the entire animal in response to a particular stimulus.

Reflexes - A reflex is a response of a specific body part (e.g., an organ) to a specific stimulus and involves a reflex arc.
Instincts - An instinct is an inherited, encoded sequence of a fixed action pattern.


Learning - Learning is an adaptive modification of behavior toward a stimulus that can be traced to a specific experience in an animal's life with that same stimulus or a similar one, or learning is a more or less permanent change in behavior as a result of experience.
Reasoning - Reasoning is the ability to choose from alternatives that are represented in the mind and evaluated, i.e., the ability to solve problems and formulate concepts.

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Dr. Ray L. Winstead
Direct e-mail Link: RWinstea@iup.edu